Early Intervention Theory and Evidence

Review the Recommendations, Strategies, Effective Practices, and Resources

What the Literature Says*


Providing information about nontraditional careers at the ages at which young people are most open to considering a nontraditional career and prior to their excluding essential preparation will increase participation in nontraditional careers.


Timing critical: The extent to which individuals sex-stereotype occupations decreases through the later stages of adolescence and adulthood, with the pattern particularly marked among females. However, ” by the time young women start to fully consider a wider range of jobs as attractive options (ages 17-18), crucial decisions about qualifications will already have been made, restricting the actual options available to them.”

More equitable math career distribution: The discrepancy between mathematics competence and the actual representation in the scientific world appears to have its roots in childhood and early adolescence.

Male seekers: Men in nontraditional careers can be divided into three groups with regard to the way in which they arrived at their career choice: seekers, who actively chose the “female” occupation; finders, who did not actively seek a nontraditional career; and settlers, who actively chose the occupation, often as a result of being dissatisfied in a traditional occupation. The seekers are the ones who would be influenced by early intervention.

*Please note that author/date callouts to references and full references can be found in the Print Form of the Root Causes document. You will be asked to complete a brief survey about your intended use of the document. The PDF will download after the survey is submitted. Thank you for your assistance!